Bioremediation and Biodegradation
Bioremediation is the process of using organisms to neutralize or remove contamination from waste. It is very important to understand that this form of waste remediation uses no toxic chemicals, although it may use an organism that can be harmful under certain circumstances. Bioremediation is a process used to treat contaminated media, including water, soil and subsurface material, by altering environmental conditions to stimulate growth of microorganisms and degrade the target pollutants. In many cases, bioremediation is less expensive and more sustainable than other remediation alternatives. Bioremediation works by providing these organisms with different materials like fertilizer, oxygen and other conditions to survive. This would help to break the organic pollutant at a faster rate. In other words, bioremediation can help to clean up oil spills. Bioremediation from an ecological perspective. Microbial biodegradation is the use of bioremediation and biotransformation methods to harness the naturally occurring ability of microbial xenobiotic metabolism to degrade, transform or accumulate environmental pollutants, including hydrocarbons (e.g. oil), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heterocyclic compounds (such as pyridine or quinoline), pharmaceutical substances, radionuclides and metals. Interest in the microbial biodegradation of pollutants has intensified in recent years and recent major methodological breakthroughs have enabled detailed genomic, metagenomic, proteomic, bioinformatic and other high-throughput analyses of environmentally relevant microorganisms, providing new insights into biodegradative pathways and the ability of organisms to adapt to changing environmental conditions. Biodegradation is the biologically catalyzed modification of an organic chemical's structure.