Public Health & Epidemiology
Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals". Public health aims to improve the quality of life through prevention and treatment of disease, including mental health. This is done through the surveillance of cases and health indicators, and through the promotion of healthy behaviors. Public health refers to all organized measures to prevent disease, promote health, and prolong life among the population. Its activities aim to provide conditions in which people can be healthy and focus on entire populations, not on individual patients or diseases. Modern public health practice requires multidisciplinary teams of public health workers and professionals. Teams might include epidemiologists, biostatisticians, medical assistants, public health nurses, midwives or medical microbiologists. Depending on the need environmental health officers or public health inspectors, bioethicists, and even veterinarians, Gender experts, Sexual and reproductive health specialists. Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations. It is the cornerstone of public health, and shapes policy decisions and evidence-based practice by identifying risk factors for disease and targets for preventive healthcare. Epidemiologists help with study design, collection, and statistical analysis of data, amend interpretation and dissemination of results (including peer review and occasional systematic review). Epidemiology has helped develop methodology used in clinical research, public health studies, and, to a lesser extent, basic research in the biological sciences.